Askhat Aimagambetov was born in 1982 in the Karaganda region. In 2003, he graduated from the Faculty of History at the Buketov Karaganda State University, as a teacher of history.
In 2006, he graduated from the Law Faculty of the Bolashak Karaganda Institute of Actual Education with a degree in law.
He began his career in 2002 at Buketov University. In 2004–2005, he was chair of the public association “Youth League Ansar,” in 2005–2006, he was the director of Media SP LLP, from 2006 to 2012, he was a teacher, a senior teacher, an associate professor at the political science and sociology department at the university.
From 2012 to 2014, he served as deputy akim of Nurinsky district on social issues.
From February 2014 to August 2017, he was head of the Department of Education of the Karaganda region.
From August 2017 to January 2019, he worked as vice minister of education and science.
Prior to his appointment as a minister, he worked as deputy akim of the Karaganda region.
From 2003 to 2012, as a self-promoted candidate, he was elected a deputy to the 3rd and 4th convocations of the Karaganda city maslikhat and chaired the standing commission on social issues of the maslikhat.
On June 13, 2019, by the Decree of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan, he was appointed minister of education and science.
On Jan. 18, 2021, by the Decree of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan, he was reappointed as minister of education and science.